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Vitculture in Bulgaria

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Vitculture in Bulgaria

Is it old at least 3000 years .In the LIAd, Homer already spoke , vines of Thrace ( part of present day Bulgaria, Greece & Turkey) and the cult of Dionyusus was born here.

The climate & geograpy of Bulgaria near the Black-Sea , are reminiscent of Tuscany. Potential wine country is very important Thracians , whose country adjoined Greece worshiped Dionysus .The god of vine and wine in Greek Mthology is supposed to be from that region

In fact it was here that, in the liad , it is for the first mention of the god child who was hostile Thracian king Lycurgus. The victory of Dionysus on the king tore, the vines marked biginning of Dionysian myths and Nysa , which became the center of his worship , is considered the birthplace of the god of wine.

The location of the cyti of Nysa remaining Hypothetical , there iis a distinction made by the Hellenists between Thrace historic banks of the Hellespont , Mount Pangea and Mount Hacmus and Thrace mythical place where the legends of Dionysus , The latter extended from the valleys of Olympus and Pieria to the slopes of Helicon and the borders of Africa .What is indisputable is that , according to the testimony provided par Hérodote , Dionysus was the national god of the Thracians.

It was then occupied the Balkan Slavs from the sixth century .As many people invadedrs , they adopted some of the customs and culture of the Thracians and in particular to the culture of the vine and the use of wine.

The alliance of Slavs and Builgarians in the eighth century marked the founding of the first Bulgarian kungdom .The castrums Pliska .its capital .had wine cellars.

Archaeology has uncovered cups in gold or siver , adorned with griffins , centaurs or eagles used by the Bulgarian nobility during his libations.

After 1879 , when Bulgaria was liberated , wine took on a new dimension , increasing the area of vineyards . After the second World War and thepassage of the countries under communism , Bulgarianwines in the framework of Comecon , had ensured their distyribution in a part of the URSS as Russia , Lithuania , Kazakhstan , Estonia , Poland and East Germany In the context of economie agreements , they were also sold in Scandin,avia at promotional prices.

The wine are:

Pamid , Merlot , Cabernet Sauvignon,Rkatziteli, Dimyat, Melnik, Misket, Musket, Otonelle, Chardonnay, Ugni Blanc, Gamza

Historic Variety Thrace, mavrud, melnik red, Rkatsiteli, the rakias are alcoholic beverages made from grapes plum , pear or apricot.

the wine regions are Vineyard of Southern Balkans, the Eastern Bulgarian Vineyard, the North Bulgarian the South Bulgarian,mavrud the southwest Bulgaria.

Bulgaria is a country of Europe, both Eastern and Slavic roots with a continental environnment , with brands and southern ottoman or Greek and Mediterranean environment . Its conversion from a general Soviet strict mode is on Western Europe Bulgaria, because of its potential in terms oforiginal culture and its strategic position at the steps of the European Unioncan bring a lot to the whole of Europe .As is usually the case . Viticulture reflected in its landscape and wine the soul of a people and a country .Viticulture in Bulgaria is no exception Here , briefly summarized a few key events

Northen Region .the mainland look the Danube valley and appears as a contnuation of the

Vituculture of Serbia with its germanic north of Vojvodina .Pleven with its famous wine research station is the heart.

Southern region :It is also bordered by the mainland and Danube Sumen is the center of its vineyards .It is mainly characterized by its outledt on the black sea with the great port of Varna , and further south the sights of the Bay of Burgas and Pomorie promontory.

Region under Balkan This is the moutainous region of Bukgaria , in the center the ridge that extends east sector of sofia

the University is also interested in the Vine and Wine , and south a second channel forming with the first a kind of open clamp on the Black Sea

South west it forms the border with Macedonia , and like the previous part of the moutain range in the Balkans Summer is very hot.

Southern regiion : It is clearly close to neighboring countries , Greece and Turkey. The climate is typically Mediterranean , most of Bulgaria .Station Plovdiv with its wine is its heart .Even if , as in the south west Greek influences are visible the presence of Orthodox monasteries in particular is the natural outlet western Turkey of Turkish Thrace .the crossroads of Edirne

Viticulture Bulgarian ancient origins as evidenced by the existence of old native varities ( recall the Bla ck Sea and the Balkans are probbaly secondary centers of origin of Vitis vinifera , the relay main center of origin Transcaucasia , but its real development begam in the mid mineteenth century after the liberation from Ottoman rule ( which has also destroyed Viticulture probably not traditional , but kept it a general context of political and economie enslavement and especially from the 1930s with Soviet planing

Indeed , the Soviet Union had launched extensive programs of planting vineyards ( vines to 3m wide row spacing compatble with the use of 'small standard tractor factory in Kiev , briefly trellisedon support post concrete standards no less) Whill these choices viticultural techniques were simplistic and far from the optimum required for the quality of the grapes, they had the merit of being economicallly viable and able to ensure rapid development of viticulture . Bulgaria was grapes , they had the merit of being economically viable and able to ensure rapid development of viticulture .Bulgaria was and still largely seen by Moscow as the first Soviet world vineyard. Types of wine were taxed to conform to the prevqailing taste of Russian consumers , especially in cold weather , which explains the power and energy value of certain wines..

In order to illustrate this , here I brig a anecdotethat occured during a mission in Bulgaria in 1983 with Professor Denis Boubals.In a cave near the Danube south pf Pleven , we presented the wine market succes in Moscow made a lot of money into the cooperative winery .the label already announced the typicaly of drink a red bear , fangs black bakground , flaked by the name Cabernet Sauvignon and some other Cyrillic.Our colleaggue Boubals called the murder Knowing just at the time ,He was a little shocked , but oh how he joined him after taste the drink wine red , thick , spirity , sweet , jammy, gascous, attack - it is true- very animal with a woody finish indefinable , But we were not in good conditions the consumption of wine picture of a bear in the woods , used to be that we couuld imagine a meeting between friends on the terrace of a cafe in the square red 20° c in bonb shelter.

This overall strategy , marketing Soviet 'was also at the time quite justified for ViticultureBulgarian , even if we should not overlook the contribution of other countries of the former Soviet bloc , and s it must put asidelarge wine producing countries , but mess politically docile , such as Romania and Hungary , This time , in any case , when the development of international grape varieties , they were choices quite relevant . And beyond the pre anecdote - mentioned and some other painful experiences for the palate and stomach , those of whites too acidicand not particullarly clear enough. we must recognize that the Bulgarian viticulture has always offered and offers more quality wines often high expression of typicality . this is explained by streamlining first cellars and then more gradually , wineyards that technically improve on all fronts , with the application of formulas best suited to the production of quality , and the rediscovery of regional soils .The quality made good Bulgarian wines are often very attractive.

The Bulgarian wine industry is finally organized and established early , with the 1978 Act , a series of categories guranteeing the origin and quality of wines

The wine country , category near the French Model.

The varietal wines subject to more stringent regulation and a single variety

wines higher , higher quality

wines Controliran matching names and theoretically to high end , it should be noted that this level is sometimes displayed under disappointments , some local wines or grape is considered the best ( note that this s'often observed also in France

there are also two soetial mentions on the label according to the aging of wine , Reserve and Special Reserve Visit these wines varietals though with some references to the place of production.The planting of Bulgarian is rich and can be classified as:

Grapes International ( French)

Cabernet Sauvignon ranks first because is was be who made known the Bulgaria International 0There is in fact planted for a very large longtime Les Bulgarian Cabernet Sauvignon can be found in many areas , but the traditional reference since the 1970s is probably the northern region Sounhindol area south of Pleven , with vineyards Souhindol and Pavlikeni. Connoisseurs generlly describe as the powerful.

Structured , marked by a mouth full fruit , blackcurrant jam fired cauldron ' barrel aging is often succesful ., other cabernet sauvignon are commercial light , often little plant, green pepper and more oriented towards the small red fruit such as currant or cassis.

The Merlot was quickly completed Cabernet Sauvignon prized for its strong aromatic typicaly , Merlot brings roundness along with the fruit . It has been very successful in many Bulgarian vineyards alone or in assembly .One of the most famous Merlot is the Stambolovo in the southern part of Balkan sub region

Syrah we do not have mich information on this varietal , but there is no reason for its success in certain terroirs Bukgarian Pinot Noir same thing , simply recall the excellence of certain wines Pinot Noir , in a region relatively close , in Kosovo, in an altitude oak bench and clayey - calcareous stones

the Chardonnay is grown successfully in Bulgaria , Especially in the eastern part of Varna as where the wine is Known for is balance and finesse of its flavor.

Sauvignon also grew , without reaching , it seems the reputation of the best Chardomnnay.Somme other varieties planted in France are as Riesling Vegetable fruit and mineral aligoté or Ugni Blanc in especially for eaux de vie

Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria
Vitculture in Bulgaria

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Romania & wines

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Romania & wines

Romania , is a country in Eastern Europe , the seventh most populous country in the European Union and its minth area is 237 499 Km² Located in central and eastern Europe , geography focuses on the Carpathians, the Danube and the Black Sea.

The wine was made by the Dacians in the Greek colonies , along the Blackn Sea . It develops during the Roman period , the conquest by the Emperor Trajan in 106 to the barbarian invasion of 256 , to supply troops ( legions and auxiliaries ) in garrison and Romanized population located in the province of Dacia.During the crisis of the third century, the Roman Empire loses the benefit of the Dacian carpi and the Goths.

Partial evacuatiion under Gallienus in 260 - 268 , 271 - 272 in total under aurelian.

During the middle Ages and the modern period , the presence of a German minority in the southern Transylvania promotes the establishment of germanic varieties still present today

The Welschriesling and traminers and a taste for sweet wines , the majority of Romanian wines are white semi dry .The ravages of phylloxera at the very end of nineteenh century from 1885 , promotes the introduction of French varieties , Sauvignon, Cabernet Sauvignon ,Pinot Noir and Merlot.

During the communist period 1947 - 1989 , winemakers are expropriated , the small individual property being replaced by state farms ( cooperatives ) during the collectivization of land , as in all countries of the Eastern bloc , these vast structures of production were privatized after the fall of ceausescu , Romanian Revolution of 1989. Since the 1990 , some foreign winemakers settled in Romania , attracted by the low prices of land and labor.

They are four major wine regions , Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Dobrogea.

Vititiculture in Romania has a log history, with several native varieties producing wines of little known abroad ,Romania is the ninth largest in the world wine producing countries , as well as the largest producer among the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

Transylvania, mainly on the central plateau.

in Transylvania especially in the valley of the Târnava ( former Weinland around Medias) , in that of the bistrita ( Lechinja ) around Alba Iulia and Aiud in Banat , Recas, Bazias, Dealul Tirolului and Moldova Noua in Crisjana , Minis , Podgoria Aradului and Biharia in Maramures, Silvania and Vulea him Mihat.

Wallachia , mainly along the southern foothills of the Carpathians , sometimes over flowing on the plain , Wallachia ( Muntenia : Dealurile Buzauliu, Dealul Mare, Stefanesti and Sâmburesti in Oltenta, Dragasant, Crusetu, Corcova, and Severinului Sadova Corabia.

Moldova, along the foothills of the Carpathian Curvature , Panciu and Odobesti Cotesti , and the plate Ivesti Nicoresti , Zeletin , Dealu Bujorrului, Colinele Tutovei, husi, Lasi and Cotnari

Cotnari wines

Dobrudja, Mainly on the edge of the plateau Murfaltar south near Constanta, Babadag and Sarica Niculitel Futher North.

The total cultivated area was 242, 700 hectares in 2002 , 83,500 in Moldavia, Muntenia 74 300 , 35 100 in Oltenia , Dobrogea 24 200. 11100 Crisana Muramures, 10 800 in Transylvania and 3700 Hectares in Banat.

Romanian climate is generally continental, so with very contrasted seasons, winters are cold and snowy, while summers are hot.

Nuances between regions are due to a cooler climate in Transylvania, the Carpathian mountain influences in Wallachia and Moldavia , Banat in the Mediterranean ( from the Adiatic) , and the proximity of the Black Sea for Dobrudja which softens the winters but relatively dried summers makes , Grapes white and gray

The classic European grape varities are represented , Welschriesling, Aligoté, Sauvignon, Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Muscat Ottonel, Gewürztraminer, Muscat of Alexandria and Chasselas, but also grapes autochtones, Feteasca Regala, Feteasca Alba, Grasa de Cotnari, Crâmposie, Francusa, Galbena of Odobesti, Sarba Tamâlioasa româneasca ( Muscat Romanian)

Romanian wine law classifies wines according to color ( white , rosé or red) the amount of sugar dry, semi dry, semi sweet or sweet,and especially its alcohol.

vinuri pentru consumul curent, wine consumption.

masa wine, table wine, masa superior, superior table, wine vinuri calitate of wine quality.

vinuri calitate of superior , pemium wine become vinuri indicatie geografica protejata cu , cudenumiri vinuri wine of origin controlata , wine AOC made from grapes containing at least 196g of sugar per liter of must.

Vinuri of inalta calitate cru denumiri controlata of origin wine appellation of controlledorigin and quality grades, vinuri din struguri culesti the deplima maturitate vintage to mature berries DOCC CMI , at least 220g of sugar per liter

Vinuri din cru struguri stafiditi if putregai Nobil vintage finishing the berries with noble rot DOCC CIB , at least 250g of sugar per liter.

Other traditional terms can be added , bottled by the producer , bottling special wine bar wine medalist, pure vine barrels elite treasure cellar , storeroom, youmg wine, wine brought to maturation in oak barrels.

Since 1993 , the national designations of origin for wine and other wine products , ONDOV , is in charge of 132 geogra^phical names and appellation of origin.

Viticulture in Romania has a long history , with several native varieties producing wines of little known abroad

Romania is the ninth largest in the world wine producing countries , as well as the largest producer among the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

production was 5.089 800 hectoliters of wine for the year 2002 , 2035.500 in Moldavia , Muntenia 1.530.000 , .492.200 in Oltenia , Dobrogea 800 and 400 ,621.300 Crisana Muramures , 312.300 in Transylvania .57.700 hectares in the Banat.

68.5% of the wines produced in 2002 were white, 31.4% are red wines 71.5% of current consumption , 28% of DOC .

While imports are reduced ( 7770 hl ) , a tenth of the Romanian productio is exported to Moldava ( 218.110 hl ) Germany ( 152 360 hl , Szech Republic 35.180 hl, Italy 23.270 hl the United Kingdom 11 230 hl OuIsrael 8820 hl.

Romanians consume little wine , compared to the comsumption in the countries of Western Europe . Up to hand in Moldava regionof highest consumption , only the bourgeoisie drink wine regulary , the vast majority of people prefer to drink alcoholic beverages like beer and schnapps , eau de vie from locally produced fruits , including drinking and aperitif.Wine Consumption in Romania is sometimes as spritz , which means white wine cut with mineral water ga.

Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines
Romania & wines

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Viticulture in Ukraine

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Viticulture in Ukraine

Ukraine is the country most of Eastern Europe, excluding Russia ,the vignard is located in the south , nordering the Black Sea.

Is heir a long tradition , Vines introduced by the Greek s flourished with the support of Christianity . The Russian Empire and Soviet have a production oriented luxury that went with the seaside towns of Crimea . It has for it a favorable climate.

In the 2000 s the wine industry is essentially a closed market , but its future is probably facing internationalization as the opening of an exbition in Odessa suggests , However spoofing recognized PDO could eventually interfere with a number of European operators and a problem in its external development.

The implementation of vines in Ukraine was probably made by the Greeks in the Crimea and the south coast .remains of amphorae and wine presses can be concluded that wine productionwas alredy.

fourth century Bc , the Scythians , the current inhabitants of Ukraine , drank their wine pure , to the chagrin of the Greeks and Romans , who cut their own water , It was not until the elevenh century , the monks cultivated the vine further north , around Kiev for their supply sacramental wine.

In 1818, a colony of Swiss wine markers canton of Vaud , is implanted in Ukraine to produce wine for the Tsar's court , She received a tax exemption from military service and prosperous quickly , The vineyard of 500 hectares they have created , is devided between a collective farm and state farm during the nationalization of land.

Count Vorontsov encouraged the planting of vines in the early nineteenth century , it creates a large estate in Yalta in 1820 and a reschearch center in wine in 1823 .After the Crimean War , Prince Lev Sergeyevich Golitsyn initiates the production of sparkling wine which he called " champagne " in reference to the famous French wine.

the vineyard has been attacked administrative in 1986 , when Gorbachev ordered a massive uprooting of vines in the fight against alcoholism about 2500 km , 800 have disappeared ,.Plamtation have taken significantly since 2000

Ukraine suffers mostly a temperature continental climate , hot and dry in summer , cold and dry winter , wet spring and fall However , the vineyard enjoys south , a trend linked to its Mediterranean southern position an d the moderating effect of the Black Sea.

The vineyard is located in Crimea moutain aree , on the relief of the Crimean Moutains , the last bastion of Western Caucasus . This relief can offer all exposures to the culture of the vine and protect partially possible influences lights.

The vineyard is located south plain , in an area rich in agriculture . Crimea is the most important region on the surface with 63 000 hectares .Soil quality and climate trentd Mediterran,een are its strenghs. Very important maturity allows the development of fortified wine and fortified wines (red wines and sparkling quality are also produced).

Av Massandra , the eponymous domain was created on the orders of Tsar Nicolas II , it its cellarscontaina collection of bottles whose number is estimated at over one million . We can mention Sherry 1775 and numerous vintages of wine field.

In the costal zone of the black Sea , wine production is oriented towards the production of table wine , especially a dry white wine , the pearl of the steppe ( Russian Perlyna Stepu ) or semi dry white wine .The vineyard Odessa , between the city and the Danube , covers 50 000 hectares , the second wine is the Kherson with 20 000 ha to the vineyards of Nikolayev 15 000 ha

Transcarpathian Vineyard Locatyed in the Westof the country , alog the border with Hungary , it gives types of wine near the Hungarian wines .It represents environ 7 000 ha , around Zaporozhye and Dnepropetrovsk , about 2000 ha are cultivated on the banks of the Dnieper.

Grape vine on a hybrid at the time of the phylloxera , the vineyards of Ukraine has ben restored with hybrid grapes . These varities were used to develop poor quality table wine .Since 1991 , significant work has been underkaten replanting 79 native varities are grown , but the vines are old and produce little , they are gradually being replaced by foreign varities mostly French( 76 foreign varieties are listed)

The grapes most commonly used are Aligoté , Muuscat, Isabella, Traminer, Cabernet Sauvignon , Chardonnay, the Feteasca, Pinot Noir , Pinot gris, Rkatsiteli, Merlot, Saperavi Severnyi , Riesling, Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer,Sercialthe bastard Magarach , the Golukbuk, the Pervenets magaratcha, the Fieltovy rummy , the podarok magaratcha,the kamraiut, the Stepniak, the Olimpiiski, the Sorok and Octiabria.

Ruring the Soviet period , yields were very high , up to 200 hectoliters per hectare, since 1991 a qualitative effort was undertaken with the gradual disappearance of hybrid varieties and lower yields.

The emergence of Ukrainian wine in the global wine market is suported by the international exhibition "Wine & Winemaking "' it is annual and takes place in Odessa , the tenth edition was held in February 2010 , Ukraine held the eighteenth rang , world wine production with about 2.5 million hectoliters . However , the fluctuation since the country ' s independence is important ,production of more than 2 million hl in 19992 , fell to 500 000 hl in 1999 . since 2002 , it has remained relatively stable betwwen 1.9 and 2.4 million hectoluiters . Falsification rate reached 75% according to a survey origin , nothing the resemblance of wine with the original model : it is called madeira wines , imitation of Madeira ,Kagor imitation of Cahors , Tokay- Tokay imitation or port 10 Hungarian , Engish name of the port.

Ukraine is a country of big consumption of alcohol , about 20 liters of pure alcohol per person per year , however , the wine occupies a modest place , behind vodka and beer . Trazditionally , it is a drink of women , men drinking stronger drinks , Wine consumption same minority is growing around 14% between 2000 and 2005 and 8.5% between 2005 and 2007 80% of the volume of consumption for national wines . Wine is a product that appeals to young women , Between 20 and 25 years 40% of consumers drink wine , this is the age group most heavily affected .Types of fine wines are red wines but their dominance is crumbling in favor of whites . thes wines , more than half are sweet or fortified wines.

Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine
Viticulture in Ukraine

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Russian Vineyards

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Russian Vineyards

Lies between the northern and westerb end of the moutain range of the Great Caucasus , as well as some of the southern slopes to the west . The northern boundary of the region is the Kuma -Mancych depression . It is bordered by the sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait to the west and east by thye Caspian Sea.

It is concentrated in thev North Caucasus where the natural conditions are met most favorable, The vine is cultivated in : The krasnodar Krai , Stavropol krai, and Rostov Oblast ande the semi autonomous republic Daguestan.

The Black Sea and the Caspian Sea are remmants of ancient sea Paratethys ,. they were trained there about 5.5 million years ago , due to tectonic uplift and a decrease in sea level . During hot and dry climatic periods , they have dried up , depositing sediments like halite , which were covered by aeolian deposits .Levels varied considerably , and Holocene ( during the last glaciation, called Würm) , it was 180 mlower than the present level of the sea , so that only the deep basins were Pontic and Caspian water.

BCE through the vitis vinifera proliferated and still exist in the from of lambrusques in the Caucasus Moutains.

Archaeological discoveries have shown that viticuture was initiated by Greek colonists , between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov , and mainly in the Taman Peninsula , where were found the ruins of their cellars .After the Greecks , It was the Khazars , Adygeya and Prosperous Cossacks continued under the tsar, the Russian wine is very passionate , Lev Sergeyevich Prince Golistsyn ( 1845 - 1916) , who implanted over 600 varietes of graoes in Novyi Svet is field.

He selected varieties such as traditional French Cabernet Sauvignon , Chardonnay, or Aligoté .Not to mention the local grapes like Saperavi , Rkatsiteli , Golubok , krasnostop and Doina . He also created new varities by crossing with varities from Western Europe which Magarach bastardo ( bastardo Saperavi x ) or Magarach ruby ( Cabernet Sauvignon x Saperavi)

The climate is typical of a continental region except on the coast of Black Sea where Anapa has a sweet semi arid climate with hot summers andv very dry and cool , wet winters . The average temperature in January is 2° c and the average temperature in July is 22° The average annual rainfall is only 400 mm , in other areas , to minimize winters growers cover their vines to protect them from frost . In the Krasnodar region , there are 193 to 233 frost free days during the growing season allowing the vines to grow to full maturation . Dagestan region has a varied climate with some semi desert areas . Approximately 13% of Russian wine is produced in the area around that Stavropol 180 - 190 frost free days .The region of Rostov on Don is characteriszed by hot and dry summers and cold winters which means lower returns.

This wine was neglected by the Soviets who industrialisèrent developing a champagne Soviet ( Russian : Cobetckoe IIIamnahckoe , Sovetskoïe champanskoïe) generic brand of sparkling wine , which was produced in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . Its technical development was developed in 1928 and mass production started in1937 . It was produced for many years by the state , usully from a blend of Chardonnay and Aligoté grape , in imitation of French champagne.

Only a few caves were equipped bottling lines and packaging .Almost all the vineyards of southern Russia can not bottle their wines were delivered in bulk by tank car or tank truck for Crown corporations ans workers ' cooperatives.

In the former Soviet Union , the wines came primarily from Moldova , Ukraine , Georgia and Russia .In 1980 , production reached 48 millions hectoliters , three times more than the United States . The USSR was the fourth largest producer behimd Italy , France and Spain . In 1990 , production fell to 16 million hectoliters and comparison with the 1980 , the vignard lost 51% of its area as a resuklt of the antialcohol campaign gorbachev , In Practice , govern ment decrees had no consequences for the reduction of the vineyard, the lower cellars and potential elimination of industry professionals vitivinicole , At the end of the twentieth century , the Russian wine was even threatened with extinction .She slowly started up again in the 2000 .

This renaissance is due to men like frank Duseigneur winemaker who moved since 2003 , with Gaëlle Brullon in the Kuban region. They grow Sauvignon , Chjardonnay and other produce wines.

Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards

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Malta Vineyards

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Malta Vineyards

Malta & Wine

like all malta Mediterranean led to the vine Climate: January 9.15° , febuary 9°, March 10° to 16 °, April 12° , May 15° t9 18° , June19° to 27° , Juillet 21° to 30° , August 22° to 27° , September 20° , October 17° to 23 °, November14° , December 11° to 16°

The Archipelago is located on 35.50 ° North and 14.35 East , located at 93 km south og sicily and 290 km of the African Coasts it spans 316 km² the country has a total of 196.8 km more ribs 56 km of Gozo it is composed of three five island are inhabited. Malta altitude 200 - 100m Area 246 km² 27 to 14.5 , Gozo 67 km² 15.5 to 7.2 Comino 3.7 km² .

Varieties in Malta are: ghirgentina white, Gellewza mammolo, have nothing of quality but have beenintroduced to their Yields Quality , Maltesse wines are now elaborated with Chardonnay , Merlot , Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Syrah, and Petit Verdot.The sole is made of limestone, coveredwith a layer of clay and sand.

There is no moutain on malta or river or forest , The landscape is characterized by hills rather dry an terraced fields , a legacy of the Arab period , the highest point is the set of Ta Zuta 253 m , the average altitude is 120 m however the Côtesoffers diverse views Whatever there are sandy beaches , natural harbors the most famous are the major port and Marsaxmett , and Valletta, Bays coves cliffs , coves and caves rocky beaches with large flat stones are alsonice , stairs are sometimes built into the rock.

Viticulture Malta has origins as old as prestigious .Introduced by the Phoenicians developed by the Greeks and Romans , sleep during the Muslin occupation, she regained its luster with the arrival of knights of St John of Jerusalem .But the British did pull the vine substitute for cotton and the phylloxera epidemic began to hurt the quality of the wines of Malta.

Historians believe that the vine and the wine were introduced in Malta by the Phoenicians around 800 BC , Greeks settled on the site of the present Medina in the eight century BCE and the islands peacefully shared with the phonecians .Malta then became a colony of Carthage - 480 ,.In favor of the Punic wars , it passed under the control of the Romans in 218 BC to the collapse of the Roman empire in 395 .To 445 , it undergoes the occupation of the Vandals to 477 and that Ostrogoths .Then Passed under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire , it remained Byzantine until its conquest by the Arabs .Vines declined during the muslim occupation until yhe arrival of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem who brought culture techniques Europe .Olivier de Serres describes a vine growing on by haughty landlessness.

Growing wines on pergola as it was praticed in malta int the seventeenth century , the island of malta has gardens with productive and although there is often topsoil that we will carry on Sicily vessels.vines and orange share these beautiful gardens. Oranges are in Boxes, or better expressed in collections formed by stone slabs, a groove is formed in the thickness of the tiles , for arrosements . All along the aisles , several meters away , stood pillars or columns of stone , slabs that form the collections above are the base .Above the pillars are pieces of wood , which join the aisles .In this framework , we put trellises which extend the vines we planted at the foot of each pillar or column, and provide in sequence a pleasant covered. These queues orange , these pillars clad with verdure ande the long went crowned a useful shade , make these picturesque gardens and produce the effect of

decorations we admire in our theaters.

Malta's entry into the Europen Union has pushed Maltesse producers to plant new vines drip irrigated to produce wine only from grapes Malta .Importing wine grapes and wine of Italy to be vinified in Malta lasted until the 1980 .In the mid 2000 , 630 hectoliters of wine were vinified .The vignard cover 490 hectares ,600 hectarees of the 31 pf the islands , but about 70% of production is still provided by grapes Girgentina ,Gellewza

Malta Vineyards
Malta Vineyards
Malta Vineyards
Malta Vineyards

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CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE

Publié le par Philippe Josse

CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE

Chavagnac Lafayette , Is a French town Wich is not located in a geographical area of production of wine appelation Chavagnaniac Lafayette between Clermont Ferrand and Le Puy en Velay near the RN 102 .Dependent on the arrondissemant Brioude , it is part of Livadois Forez and the Community of the Town of Paulhaguet .

Altitude Between 620 m and 1046 m , Located in a Moutain area on the territory of green lentils from Le Puy e'n Velay : Area 841 ha by crossing two streams ( the Chavagniac the Lidenne.

Administratively , Chavagnaic Lafayette is a smalll village in the center of France , in the department of haute Loire (43) of the Auvergne region , The village of Chavaniac Lafayette belongs to the district of the canton of Brioude Paulhaguet , Its postal codfe is 43230

Chavagniac Lafayette is also the common view to the Marquis de Lafayette born: Gilbert du motier, Marquis theLafayette says "La fayette" born september 6, 1757 at Chavagniac Lafayette ( HauteLoire, died May 20 , 1834 in Paris , is a French aristocrat of liberal orientation officer and politician, hero of the War of Independence of the United States , Personality of the French Revolution until his emigration in 1792 and major political beginings of the monarchy July.

He .was made an honorary citizen of the United States in 2002

From an old military family of auvergne , whose origins date back to the eleventh century known, gilbert was born in the castle of motier Chavigniac Lafayette.

The family name has its origin in La Fayette , current common aix-la-Fayette (puy de Dôme) , site of a motte documenté ,His father, Louis Michel Crhrisophe of Moitiermarquis de La Fayette 1733 1759 , colonel in the Grnadiers de France, was killed in Westphalia at the age of twentysix years by a cannonball at the battle of Minden , Ist August 1759 in the arms of the Ducke de Broglie.

his mother, Mary Louise Jolie River , rich aristocrat St Brieuc , born in 1737, retired to Paris at the Palais du Luxembourg , she died on 3 April 1770

, At the age 12 the Marquis de La Fayette is an orphan and only potentiel heir to the fortune of her maternal grandfather, the Marquis de La Rivière, who died shortly after making him oneof the men France's richest. This ishis great-grandfather, Count of La Rivière, former Lieutenant General of the Armies of the King . who brought him to Paris for his education .The young Marquis has lonely childhood.

He studied until 1771 at the college du Plessis ( now Lycée Louis Le Grand ) , where he appears to show a penchant for independence and freedom and will parallel training of cadet regiment of black Roi Musketeers

Rhe army will become a second family to him ; It will also follow the progressof the Military Academy of Versailles and will be reviewed by the King.

Participation La Fayette in the warr of Independence of United States 1775 1783 earned him a hug celebrity and a symbolic place for being the link between the U S and France , earning him be nicknamed " The hero of two worlds " and what makes La Fayette symbol of French support to the insurgents of America , making it as the figure of the romantic hero.

That canned ishis young age 19 years and the circumstances of his departture from France without the king's official yet conductive to peace , financing the trip with his own money .however , although he had a significant role in military terms , it is less compaed to that provoked political balance.

the arrival of Lafayette in America in August 1775 , Capitain Gilbert de La Fayette was sent by his father duc d'Ayen stationed at Metz to perfect his military training, He participates on August 8 at a large dinner hosted by the Governor of the city to the Ducke of Gloucester , brother of the King of England , whoevokes the uprising Insurgents The young officer took the same day the decision to go fight for the American independence . Back to Paris in the autumn , La Fayette participates in companies thinking that discuss the commitment of France in the American Revolution. At these meetings, a speaker , Abbé Guillaume Thomas Raynal emphasized the human rights andthe end of colonies , the clergy as critical nobility, censored , he expressed his views scretly therefore to Masonic lodges including one where La Fayette is a member .The young capitain is reform of the army June 11 , 1776 , signed in Paris its commitment in the U S Army as a major general withhis future patron Baron de Kalb and Silas Deane, diplomat and U s Commissioner.

He secretly finance the purchase of a ship "' Victory " a ship of 200 tons , with only two guns , thirty crew and cargo as 5-6 000 rifles , after a trip to England to fooll spies English and French opponents to his company , he escaped to France ad Bordeaux wins. There he embarks openly Spain and Basque port of Pasajes near San Sebastian , fun destination for those who want to go to the Americas , Bordeaux income quickly, he learned that it would kick in order to arrest the origin of which is his stepfather would require a lettre de cachet against him to the king who had already officially banned leave the country afther British.

After a Long voyage of seven weeks , Jun 13 it made landfall at south Inlet , near georgetown in America where guns are sold to arm the militia of Georgia He lend his companions oath to conquer of perish , them met Major Benjamin Huger , he met on 1 August 1777 , he was appointed to his staff as aide with as Major General and , despite a mixed reception at the begining of the members of Congrss in philadelphia , he took part in the figting in the summer .He received a bullet in the leg at the battle of Brandywine, September 11 1777.

Lafayette in Virginia: Yorktown article

Preparation of the French Expeditionary Corps in 1780 in United States , Battle of cCap Henry and Virginia Defense by Lafayette , Back to the United Siates in 1780aboard the Hermione, he received the command of Georges Washington's troops Virginia. Responsible to operate in Virginia against forces four times in number , yet it sacrifices part ofhis fortune to keep his soldiers under his command and arrived by forced marches and sudden return to Cornwallis so tired and harassed his troops that the British General is forced to concider an adversary redoutable .

La Fayette is a junction with the troops of George Washinton and Comte de Rochambeau , Commander of the French expeditionary corps 6000mens to focus on the enciclement of Cornwallis at Yorktown.

CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE
CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE
CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE
CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE
CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE
CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE
CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE
CHAVAGNAC LAFAYETTE

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The Lafayette Grape

Publié le par Philippe Josse

 

The Grape of French Origin

The Origin Genetic is not verified but it would be a crossing of varieties , Madeleine Royal & Precose Malingre

Moreau Robert marketing plants from 1863 . He presented this as the earliest variety .Madeleine Angevine was often used by breeders for early varieties , Madeleine Angevine served as progenitors for contessa varieties , forta , Noblessa , Pearl Czabah Reichensteiner and Siegerrbe ,

The Madeleine Angevine is achieved by sowing Oberlin .His name is reference to the maturity relatively eatrly in Sainte Madeleine july 22 , The Madeleine Angevine is Known under the names of Chasselas Talhouet, Korai magda, Maddalena Angevina, Madlen An¨zevin, Magdalenka Skora , Magdalina Anzhuiskaya, Magitszölö,

Petrovskii clusters are small to medium sized berries are large .

The cluster is Cylindrical and compact .end of the young branch fluffy white edged carmine . Young leaves downy , yellowish white.

Adult leaves 5 lobed , lateral sinus with concave bottoms, a lyre shaped petiolar sinus open , teeth ogival medium araneous a limb pubescent , Madeleine Angevine grape is the result of a ceoss early Malingre x Madeleine Royal grape variety is obtained Moreu Robert 1845 ,

The genetic origin is verified and it would be a seedling Chasselas grape variety permited in Britain and Belgium,

It is cultivated :

Argentina,France, Austria, and Switzerland.

Not to be confused with Common Chavagnac Lafayette Upper Loire, Who is a french town which is not located in a geographical area of production of wine appelation .

 

Cavaniac Lafayette between Clermont Ferrant and Le Puy en Velay near the RN 102 .

Dependant on the arrondissement Brioude , it is part of Livradois Forez and the Community of the Town of Paulhaguet . 

Altitude Between 620 and 1046 m , Located in a moutain area on the territory of green lentils from Le Puy en Velay . Area 841 ha by crossing two streams ( the Chavignac , the Lidenne)

Administratively , Chavignac Lafayette is a small village in the center of France , in the departement of Haute Loire 43 of the Auvergne region , The Village of Chavagnac Lafayette belong to the district of the canton of Brioude Paulhaguet . It is postal code is 43230 .

A Botanical Museum grouping forty seven old vines used at the beginning of the last century , Visit by appointment only about 1.30 , Groups all year by appointment , Road Chazieux 43380 Saint Ilpize Haute Loire Place of Old Mills 433380 La Voute Chilhac.

omce used by the winemakers of st Ilpize Through this initiative , the memory of a town rich in Terrace formerly  covered by vines still alive .Certanly . Affirm that the nectar produced by Ilpidiens was a geat wine is a little far -fetched , however many barrels were shipped via the Alier River, andd could even reach .Paris , is the Phylloxera , so aphid enjoying a ravage the vineyards , which forced growers to abandon production , to the chagrin of some fans who is now trying to put the grapevine up to date in the country will therefore be round the side of the museum countries located north west of the departement of Haute Loire , south of the Auvergne region , In the gorges of the Allier , the village of Lavoûte Chilhac is about halfway between Old and Laneac Brioude , Late Gorges de l'Allier , early Limagne

The Lafayette Grape
The Lafayette Grape
The Lafayette Grape
The Lafayette Grape

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ZINFANDEL' NATIVE PLACE

Publié le par Philippe Josse

ZINFANDEL' NATIVE PLACE

In 19993, the team of Professor Carole Meredith at the University of California at Davis used a DNA analyss technique and confirmed that Primitivo and Zinfandel are clones of the same variety cépage, 2comparative test have subsequently conclued that the selection of primitive transplants generally had a higher yield than those of Zinfandel , arriving early maturity , witha yield equal to a greater and lesser susceptibility to rot Brune These findings are consistent with the theory that the primitive is the result of a selection of Croatian clones selected dor their early maturity.

Similarities in the organoleptic characteristics of the respective Zinfandel California , malic plavac Croatia an Primitivo from southern Italy n indeed prompted to think , at first glance , these varieties were not actually o,e , Yet nothing was less obvious when not held not only in apperances.

Forty years a true and meticulous dedective work , analysis and research by both by scientist, and historians ampelographers, finaly elucidated the mystery of the origins of Zinfandel ... Their findings confirm and disprove at the time , what we subodorait.

In addition , this tracking endless eventful , resulted give the zinfandel almost mythical status in the quest for the origins of the main grape varieties used in the world today that mobilizes and passionate copntempory oenology.

Afirst clue to the origin of Zinfandel

A Californian origin of this variety was highly unlikely for the simple reason that there was no Vitis Vinifera on the American continent before the arrival of Spanish conquistadors in Mexico in April 1519 . They are the ones who introduced it .But what puzzled is that the Zinfandel grape is not Spanish or even European.

Discovery in the literature of the nineteenth century led , initialy , to a track on a possible Hungarian origin , In is book published in 1820 zinfandel A History of a Grape and Its Wines ( Charles Sulivan ) showed that this plant vines were imported from botanical garden imperial Schönbrunn in Vienna at a nursery long Island in the United States .Then from there , for several decades , it was cultivated by amateurs in north eastern United States an Vinified to be Consumed as table wine.

This is another nurseryman (Frederick Macondray , who decided to send him to California in 1852 under the name of Zinfandel which , considering its adaptability to the soil and warm climate in California , it grew rapidly to meet the demand of the thirty gold diggers of the time they grande westward.

But his presence at the Botanical Institute of Vienna , at the time of the splendor of the Austro- Hungarian Empire , which also included Croatia , was not in itself evidence of a possible origin magyar.

Zinfandel and Primitvo ar a single grape variety

A major breakthough in the indentification of the origin intervened in 1967 , when dr .Austin Goheen , a scientist at the University of California winemaking Davis , visiting the Itaian region of publia, tasted by randon local wine called Primitivo reminded him of Zinandel Strongly . He then asked to see the vineyards and concluded that the primitive zinfandel and were certainly the same variety with two different names.

yet it failed to resolve the origin of the first . No archive did not mention the italian Primitivo grape as native italian and genetic reseach confirmed that it was not part of ampelographic heritage of the peninsula. we scaffolding then all kinds of theories , each more improbable than the other.

ZINFANDEL' NATIVE PLACE
ZINFANDEL' NATIVE PLACE
ZINFANDEL' NATIVE PLACE
ZINFANDEL' NATIVE PLACE
ZINFANDEL' NATIVE PLACE

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