Lies between the northern and westerb end of the moutain range of the Great Caucasus , as well as some of the southern slopes to the west . The northern boundary of the region is the Kuma -Mancych depression . It is bordered by the sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait to the west and east by thye Caspian Sea.
It is concentrated in thev North Caucasus where the natural conditions are met most favorable, The vine is cultivated in : The krasnodar Krai , Stavropol krai, and Rostov Oblast ande the semi autonomous republic Daguestan.
The Black Sea and the Caspian Sea are remmants of ancient sea Paratethys ,. they were trained there about 5.5 million years ago , due to tectonic uplift and a decrease in sea level . During hot and dry climatic periods , they have dried up , depositing sediments like halite , which were covered by aeolian deposits .Levels varied considerably , and Holocene ( during the last glaciation, called Würm) , it was 180 mlower than the present level of the sea , so that only the deep basins were Pontic and Caspian water.
BCE through the vitis vinifera proliferated and still exist in the from of lambrusques in the Caucasus Moutains.
Archaeological discoveries have shown that viticuture was initiated by Greek colonists , between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov , and mainly in the Taman Peninsula , where were found the ruins of their cellars .After the Greecks , It was the Khazars , Adygeya and Prosperous Cossacks continued under the tsar, the Russian wine is very passionate , Lev Sergeyevich Prince Golistsyn ( 1845 - 1916) , who implanted over 600 varietes of graoes in Novyi Svet is field.
He selected varieties such as traditional French Cabernet Sauvignon , Chardonnay, or Aligoté .Not to mention the local grapes like Saperavi , Rkatsiteli , Golubok , krasnostop and Doina . He also created new varities by crossing with varities from Western Europe which Magarach bastardo ( bastardo Saperavi x ) or Magarach ruby ( Cabernet Sauvignon x Saperavi)
The climate is typical of a continental region except on the coast of Black Sea where Anapa has a sweet semi arid climate with hot summers andv very dry and cool , wet winters . The average temperature in January is 2° c and the average temperature in July is 22° The average annual rainfall is only 400 mm , in other areas , to minimize winters growers cover their vines to protect them from frost . In the Krasnodar region , there are 193 to 233 frost free days during the growing season allowing the vines to grow to full maturation . Dagestan region has a varied climate with some semi desert areas . Approximately 13% of Russian wine is produced in the area around that Stavropol 180 - 190 frost free days .The region of Rostov on Don is characteriszed by hot and dry summers and cold winters which means lower returns.
This wine was neglected by the Soviets who industrialisèrent developing a champagne Soviet ( Russian : Cobetckoe IIIamnahckoe , Sovetskoïe champanskoïe) generic brand of sparkling wine , which was produced in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . Its technical development was developed in 1928 and mass production started in1937 . It was produced for many years by the state , usully from a blend of Chardonnay and Aligoté grape , in imitation of French champagne.
Only a few caves were equipped bottling lines and packaging .Almost all the vineyards of southern Russia can not bottle their wines were delivered in bulk by tank car or tank truck for Crown corporations ans workers ' cooperatives.
In the former Soviet Union , the wines came primarily from Moldova , Ukraine , Georgia and Russia .In 1980 , production reached 48 millions hectoliters , three times more than the United States . The USSR was the fourth largest producer behimd Italy , France and Spain . In 1990 , production fell to 16 million hectoliters and comparison with the 1980 , the vignard lost 51% of its area as a resuklt of the antialcohol campaign gorbachev , In Practice , govern ment decrees had no consequences for the reduction of the vineyard, the lower cellars and potential elimination of industry professionals vitivinicole , At the end of the twentieth century , the Russian wine was even threatened with extinction .She slowly started up again in the 2000 .
This renaissance is due to men like frank Duseigneur winemaker who moved since 2003 , with Gaëlle Brullon in the Kuban region. They grow Sauvignon , Chjardonnay and other produce wines.