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Viticulture in Greece

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Viticulture in Greece


Is one of the oldest in the world. The combination of soil and climate allowed it to expand and older texts of Greek literature as the Iliad and Odyssey bear witness
The earliest Greek wines have been dated to 6,500 years, their development meets the needs of a family or a small community. Next progress of Greek civilization, their production and marketing took a big way. Archaeological excavations have shown that the consumption of wine was an effective across the Mediterranean. He gained a high prestige in Italy under the Roman Empire. This reputation lasted until the Middle Ages, where the wines exported from Greece and its islands were seen as the only ones worthy of royal or papal tables in Western Europe.
"The wine was adopted by the Greeks, at least from the IIIemillénaire BCE. But a recent discovery shows archaeobotany making wine Dikili Tash, in northern Greece, Neolithic (late fifth millennium), may be from wild vines
These oldest traces of wine have been dated to -6500. This discovery was made by Tania Valamoti, the Department of Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The Neolithic site Dikili Tash, located in the plain of Drama in East Macedonia and Thrace, about 1.5 km east of the ancient city of Philippi, the archaeologist and his team searched four houses where they discovered 2,460 charred seeds and grape skins 300 steps. The analysis of these remnants of winemaking has revealed that these grains originated either lambrusques, is a very early variety. Greek archaeologists have also unearthed clay cups with two handles and pots suggesting the transfer of liquids and consommationLa presence of carbonized figs, near the remains of grapes, suggesting that they were used as adjuvant for sweet disguise the bitterness of the juice of wild grapes. Tania Valamoti explained: "The figs, sweeter, have been added to the grape juice before fermentation, and then after the completion of the fermentation process." The team of the Aristotle University will be analyzed pottery Dikili Tash to determine whether tartaric acid was present in tassesThucydide had said: "The Mediterranean peoples began to emerge from barbarism when they learned to cultivate the olive and vigne4 ". It was a success because, six centuries later, the poet Virgileécrivit it "would be easier to count the grains of sand of the sea than listing all the Greek wines"
Wine Islands
Five islands of the Aegean Sea providing renowned wines: Chio, with the raw and Arivisios Phainos whose fame equaled dearness unmétrète (about 40 liters) worth a mine, or the price of a pair of oxen; Lesbos, Samos, Lemnos, while in Naxos legend wanted it gushed a source of natural wine
Wines of the continent
Thrace, birthplace of the famous Dionysus provided Maroneia with which Odysseus Cyclops drunk. Of Macedonia came raw Acanthiaet Mende. Thessaly was known for his Heraclea and Attica was developed ChrysatikosLe the famous Greek wine name was used to designate OENOS: ŒNATE: vintage Illyrian, ŒNONTE: Greek thought, Oenoe: city of Attica and believed cited by Pliny ŒNIADES: city of Thessaly, ŒNUS: city of Arcanamie, ŒNOPIE or Oenone: Aegina, OENOPHYTA: town in Boeotia.
To contain wine or drink, the Greeks used to be a askos, kantharos, acetabulum, Crater, Dinos Kyathos, Kylix, lagynos, Lebes, Oinochoe, Olpe, Psykter, or rhyton Skyphos
The main wine regions of Greece are the Peloponnese, Attica, Macedonia, the island of Rhodes, Samos, Santorini, Crete and Epirus
Mainland Greece, Crete and other islands have limestone floors, while Santorini is a volcanic island transformed into a caldera, off nearly 15 km, covered with volcanic ash. These soils are ideal for vine
According to climate data of Athens and Corfu, it appears that the rainfall that restrict outside the continent, the vegetative period of the vine, temperatures remain conducive to ripening until October and November. In areas experiencing heavy rainfall, the berries burst, due to rain, involves diluting flavorings and remains the leading cause of bad vintages.
es vineyard areas are in decline since the 1960 (236 000 ha in 1961 to 146,000 ha in 1991). They are mainly dedicated to the production of wine (55% in 1964 and 53% in 1984). If the area devoted to wine decreased production, it has increased due to improved techniques, but also through specialization. As long as all farmers producing wine now, certain holdings and regions are specialized. The major wine producing regions are the north and west of the Peloponnese (Elis, Achaia and Corinth), the region of Heraklion in Crete and central Greece (Attica, Boeotia and Euboea). Each of these regions in 1994 produced more than 51,000 tons of grape

Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece
Viticulture in Greece

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Egypt and wines

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Egypt and wines

The first indisputabe evidence of an organized wine comes from ancient Egypt.

Here are 5 or 6 thousand years, orchards wine, were grown on the banks of the Nile, because it was already cut the branchess, build a press, take advantage of the fermentation .And how to treat the delicate vines.

It is difficult to accurately locate the place and date of birth wine, but archaeologists do go back to the late Stone age, 5000 BC , at a time when man is sédentarisa

The first evidence of the domestication and cultivation of the vine back to the fourth millennium BC in the Caucasus and Mesopotamia. The cultivation of the vine and wine production then develop in Egypt , Greece and the Roman Empire , then in Gaul .

Under the Old Empire , the wine is restricted to Pharaoh and his entourage .It is produced in the Fayoun and the Delta , two regions favorable to the growth of the vine , or imported from foreing countries such as Palestine .Pharaho had his ownvine whose production was used for funeralrites , the wine is an essential componnt of the worship of gods , and a portion being reserved for his table .

In the new Kingdon ( 1567- 1085 BC) , And in particular with Ramses that have greatly developed the culture and commerce of wine , it has spread throughout the country and became a product consumed by all . Egypt became a major producer of wine and traded with other Mediterranean countries . The vineyards belonging to important people were already names . Ramses III ( 1198 - 1166 BC ) , the famous vineyards planted Kan- Komet , as well as new vineyards in the Oasis Djoser's vineyard, for example, was a name of a remarkable lenth : Praise to you Horus who is on the threshold of heaven , Egyptians who tasted this wine just drink called Horus.

Land most suitable for the vine was the Nile Delta , but some big owners are located further south in artificially creating a field in its own culture along the river .In addition to these great vineyards , garden were all with at least some vines.

No weeding without throwing some rubble around the vines to aerate the soil . Tirelessly , we sought snail devouring seedling softened Dew, The winemaker worried foil useless exuded the cluster private sun .And when approching the time of collection , birds were hunted all day in the sling.

Methods of cultivation and selection of varities adapted to the geographical environment, The Delta and the Fayoun are the two regions of Egypt preferred where vineyards can provide a high quality wine . Jars regitered reveal the exitence of raw south from well identified four areas of country .During the Persian occupation and domination in the Greek viticulture extends through yhe oasis irrigation techniques , new varieties are introduced.

During Roman times , the administrati documentation provide information on the main pperations covered viticultural techniques . Some wines are exported to Italy.

The texts of the Copic Christian era emphasize the continuity of the development of viticulture in Egypt.

Reserved for the elite , the wine is associated with the gods , including Osiris , god of resurrection .On the one hand , because it leads to drunkenness , considered a possession, it is seen as a tool for beginners and communication with the gods . On the other hand,, because the color red signifies the blood and the life everlasting.

Osiris , God of the afterlife and guarantor of human resurrection is also the god of the vine , which is par excellence , a symbol of renewal and therefore of life reborn , it is not uncommon to find in the decoration of graves , not onlyas an element of the daily life and work that continues beyond death ,but also the symbol of Osiris, otherwise known as the wine who as is the great witness of the resurrrection.

This is tthe case of the famous Tomb of the vines built on the hill of Sheikh Abd el Qurna , for Sennefer , mayor of Thebes under Amenhotep II , who did not show us the grapes invite us to meditate on the myth of Osiris.

The tomb of Sennefer is judtly famous for its ceiling and the quality of its reliefs and its conservation status .Artisans have exploited the irregularity of it to decorate vineyards hence the name " Tomb with vines of the monumment . A true initiatory journey beyond the Egyptian we returned.

This symbol also persits across civilizations and religions very different. The idea a eternal rebirth is also reflected through Dionysus and Jesus . The origin of the wine is divine in Greece , it is given by Dionysus the king Oeneus in Rome Saturn is Olding this role. The Bible uses many images focusing on the vine and wione . For those who follow moses , the first vision of the Promised Land was a bunch of grapes . jesus chages water into wine at the wedding in Cana . He said I am the true vine , and my father is the gardener . The wine is obviously at the center of the Supper , is identified in the blood of Christ.

The etymology of the word vwine.

It comes from the Sanskrit root Vena meaning love found in vinum in Latin , French wine , Italian vino , wein in Germany an English.

During the New Kingdom, Egypt , although large producer , also important wine Palestine , Syria and Phoenicia . The wine trade was prosperous and many boats ensured its delivery on the Nile Teaches writing and an official from the royal palace provided transport 1500 jars of wine and 50 sealed jars chedeh , a liquor made from honey and wine , three boats , On somes jars , you can read the words " wine of the third or the seventh time " which suggests that the Egyptians resorted to successsive extraction , effective way to preserve the quality of the wine.

The vines were grown in the delta and were especially appreciated by the inhabitants of the northen region . The vines trade was very active on the Nile . Ships could carry up to 2000 jars . Champion of the administration , the Egyptians étiquetaent wine . Seal s and labels drawn in ink on some amphorae

New Empire we have received , mention the name of the owner , chief winemaker of the worlkers and even the soil . The origin of the grapes were even noticed , making the label more specific than that now adorn our bottles . The jars are sealed with mud caps .For storing wine , we frequently drawn off or we cooked.

In the past the dynasties wine should be a lucrative market for the cellars were discovered near the harbor of Aboukir in the Mile Delta .A mortar with traces of wine covered walls .Stone pipes were also founf and it is believed that the wine flowed there to the port where it was loaded on ships pinardiers our ancestors . These remains date from 395 to 30 BC , when Egypt was dominated by the Romans.

Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines
Egypt and wines

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Viticulture in Israel

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Viticulture in Israel

Vineyard on Lount Suba

Viticulture in Israel is reflected in the various book of the Bible. She took a resurgence in the 1950s with the arrival of many winemakers from Europe to Israel

Biblical period

The cluster val Eshkol , in Canaan

By tradition , after the Hebrewq people left Egypt, he passed the Dead and went to Canaan , It was then thatMoses had sent a vanguard to the promises land .When she returned , two men wore , suspended fron a pole , a huge bunch of grapes.

Article Famillies of varieties , proles and sorto standard.

The vineyards of Canaan were to be conducted in haughty or on pergola , Marcel Lachiver also says " This is not unrelated to the natural environnement in whichgrew wild wines"

This is not unrelated to the natural environment in which grew wild vines.

This type of table bgrapes could help develop quality wines .Besides wine exported to ancient Egypt, to be consumable should be mixed with honey and that it was added berries , pepper and juniper to hide its bad taste.

In ancient times , the wines exported to Rome and Britain were so heavy and sweet they were not in the consumables status.

The Muslim conquest in 636 imposed twelve centuries without wine , the withdrawal of occupantspermitted to Turkey to revive oriented development viticulture and wine production quality .

Since 1870 , the Israeli wine has all the technical and financial support provided by Edmond de Rothschild , owner of Château Lafite Rothschild.

Today the country is devided into five wine regions : Galilee, well suited to the productionof quality wine region , because of its altitude , temperature variations between day and night and well drained soils , judea around jerusalem, the Samson , between the judean hills and the coastal plain , the plain of Sharonj , between the Mediterranean coast and the south of Haifa , which is the largest grape growing region in the Jewish state , and the Golan Heights . Several Israeli wines have won awards at international level in recent years , and the cellars of quality are increasing thoroughout the country.

Viticulture in Israel
Viticulture in Israel
Viticulture in Israel
Viticulture in Israel
Viticulture in Israel
Viticulture in Israel
Viticulture in Israel

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The Current Lebanon

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Wine in Lebanon , or the birthplace of the wine trade

Is the first historic wine producer in the world.

For centuries , the region of Zahle, in the center of the Bekas Valley, is renowned for the quality of its grapes , currently , twenty varieties is used

Production of eight million bottle per year

Noah, whose tomb would be in the mosque of Kerak , at the exit of Zahie , Bekaa , would have stopped on Mount Sannine in Lebanon and there planted the vine.

One of the temples of Baalbek is dedicated to Bacchus, the Roman god of wine.

Lebanon , within the triangle formed by the Caucasus , now Armenia & Georgia , Mesopotamia , now Iraq and Israel , in which historians are making the first wines around 6000 BC AD is one of the cradies of viticulture

Around 3000 BC.Bc , the phoenicians exported their wine , lebanese wine distributing worldwide.

Lebanon 's reputation for its wines continues in the Middle Ages , marketed by Venetian merchants . In 1857, jesuit missionaries introduced in Algeria , then French , new vineyards and a new methods of production , laying the foundations of the modern Lebanese wine Industry.

Between the two world wars , the French protectorate in Lebanon created an unprecedented demand .

in 1975 , Lebanon was plunged into a civil war 15 years that breaks the development of the wine sector.

Wine tourism

Most UVL members have, or will soon have , tasting rooms at their wineries , where wine enthusiasts can sample the latest vintages .As far back as 2001 .the UVL sought to initiate wine tourism as a way to promote Lebanese wine and Lebanon's wine growing areas and it is hoped that eventually a structured wine tour , or route du vin , will be established.

The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon
The Current Lebanon

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