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Russian Vineyards

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Russian Vineyards

Lies between the northern and westerb end of the moutain range of the Great Caucasus , as well as some of the southern slopes to the west . The northern boundary of the region is the Kuma -Mancych depression . It is bordered by the sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait to the west and east by thye Caspian Sea.

It is concentrated in thev North Caucasus where the natural conditions are met most favorable, The vine is cultivated in : The krasnodar Krai , Stavropol krai, and Rostov Oblast ande the semi autonomous republic Daguestan.

The Black Sea and the Caspian Sea are remmants of ancient sea Paratethys ,. they were trained there about 5.5 million years ago , due to tectonic uplift and a decrease in sea level . During hot and dry climatic periods , they have dried up , depositing sediments like halite , which were covered by aeolian deposits .Levels varied considerably , and Holocene ( during the last glaciation, called Würm) , it was 180 mlower than the present level of the sea , so that only the deep basins were Pontic and Caspian water.

BCE through the vitis vinifera proliferated and still exist in the from of lambrusques in the Caucasus Moutains.

Archaeological discoveries have shown that viticuture was initiated by Greek colonists , between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov , and mainly in the Taman Peninsula , where were found the ruins of their cellars .After the Greecks , It was the Khazars , Adygeya and Prosperous Cossacks continued under the tsar, the Russian wine is very passionate , Lev Sergeyevich Prince Golistsyn ( 1845 - 1916) , who implanted over 600 varietes of graoes in Novyi Svet is field.

He selected varieties such as traditional French Cabernet Sauvignon , Chardonnay, or Aligoté .Not to mention the local grapes like Saperavi , Rkatsiteli , Golubok , krasnostop and Doina . He also created new varities by crossing with varities from Western Europe which Magarach bastardo ( bastardo Saperavi x ) or Magarach ruby ( Cabernet Sauvignon x Saperavi)

The climate is typical of a continental region except on the coast of Black Sea where Anapa has a sweet semi arid climate with hot summers andv very dry and cool , wet winters . The average temperature in January is 2° c and the average temperature in July is 22° The average annual rainfall is only 400 mm , in other areas , to minimize winters growers cover their vines to protect them from frost . In the Krasnodar region , there are 193 to 233 frost free days during the growing season allowing the vines to grow to full maturation . Dagestan region has a varied climate with some semi desert areas . Approximately 13% of Russian wine is produced in the area around that Stavropol 180 - 190 frost free days .The region of Rostov on Don is characteriszed by hot and dry summers and cold winters which means lower returns.

This wine was neglected by the Soviets who industrialisèrent developing a champagne Soviet ( Russian : Cobetckoe IIIamnahckoe , Sovetskoïe champanskoïe) generic brand of sparkling wine , which was produced in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . Its technical development was developed in 1928 and mass production started in1937 . It was produced for many years by the state , usully from a blend of Chardonnay and Aligoté grape , in imitation of French champagne.

Only a few caves were equipped bottling lines and packaging .Almost all the vineyards of southern Russia can not bottle their wines were delivered in bulk by tank car or tank truck for Crown corporations ans workers ' cooperatives.

In the former Soviet Union , the wines came primarily from Moldova , Ukraine , Georgia and Russia .In 1980 , production reached 48 millions hectoliters , three times more than the United States . The USSR was the fourth largest producer behimd Italy , France and Spain . In 1990 , production fell to 16 million hectoliters and comparison with the 1980 , the vignard lost 51% of its area as a resuklt of the antialcohol campaign gorbachev , In Practice , govern ment decrees had no consequences for the reduction of the vineyard, the lower cellars and potential elimination of industry professionals vitivinicole , At the end of the twentieth century , the Russian wine was even threatened with extinction .She slowly started up again in the 2000 .

This renaissance is due to men like frank Duseigneur winemaker who moved since 2003 , with Gaëlle Brullon in the Kuban region. They grow Sauvignon , Chjardonnay and other produce wines.

Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards
Russian Vineyards

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The Cyprus Vineyard

Publié le par Philippe Josse

The Cyprus Vineyard

Cyprus : population 1138071 , Superficie 9251 km²

Island of Cyprus , the ancient Egyptians called it " Alachia " the ancient Assyrians " Iatnana" and the Phoenicians " Enkomi" was from Antiquity to the crossroads of important trade flows , assimilating the centuries different cultures from minoqan Crete, Greece Mycenaean and all around the levantine Basin , the name " Kupros " means copper , wirh reference to large depositif of this metal , which ensured its fame and prosperity in the thoughout the mediterranean basin Cyprus was also known for its many spices and plantations .The Historyof Cyprus was hectic and the island suffered many institutions : Hellenistic , Roman , Bysantine, Arab, Frankish , Venetian , Ottoman & British finally

Cyprus is an island located in the levantine Basin , which is the easternmost part of the mediterranean Sea , often considered European but south of Anatolia ( Asian part of modern Turkey ) and face of Syria , while being a member of the European Union for its de facto southern part of the island to swear. It has a population of about 1.3 million peoples , mostly greek with Turkish minority and installed in British military enclaves under the sovereignty of the Crown .The Turkish army occuping the northen part since 1974 , Cyprus ( including the capital Nicosia) is divided into two separate entities by the Green Line or Attilia Line , The Area of Cyprus is 9251 km²

It contains a variety with these mountains of troodos and Pendadactylost that rise in volcanic force exerted by the tectonic plates of africa and Eurasia , dry climate in the region of Nicosia and well course a very Mediterranean climate with the sea providing a bit of freshness during the long summer months , Average january temperature 11.9°in july average 26.6° , in January Rain Rain , in July 0.55 mmm

The Cypriot Vineyards

The vineyards of Cyprus are among the very few in the world that were not affected by the vine louse , Known as phylloxera , the catastrophic consequences of phylloxera led European vine- growers engrafting scions of well-Known European varieties onto American vine stocks which are resistant to the discrase.This resulted in vine plants resistant to phylloxera whith produce grapes whose organoleptic or sense related characteristics ie colour , aroma and flavour , are not quite identical to those of the original European vine known as Vitis Vinifera

The grapes Varieties

Xynisteri, Maratheftiko, Bambakada, Mavro, Ofthalmo, Chardonnay, Muscat of Alexandria or Malaga, Palomino, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon ,Cabernet Sauvignon , Maratheftiko, Syrah , Cabernet Franc, Cinsault, Lefkada, mourvedre, Mataro Syrah, Grenache.

Industry ranks 37 th in the World in terms of total production quantity 37.500 tonnes and much higher on a per capita basis Although , chronologically . Cyprus belong to the old world of wine producing countries , the industriy has gone through changes that place it more on par with the new world .The wine industry is significant contributor to the Cypriot economy through cultivation , production, employment, export & tourism

ancient

hellenistic mosaics discovered in 1962 close to the city of Paphos depicting Dionysos , god of wine

Exactly how far back wine production in Cyprus goes is unknow . wine was being traded at least as early as 2300 BC , the date of a shipwreck ( similar to the Kyremia Sip ) carring over 2.500 Amphore , discovered in 1999 , its origin and destination are unknown , but must have been along the trade route between Greece and Egypt.

more recently , two discoveries have put that date back by a few more years , The first was the discovery of a Bronze Age ( 2500 - 2000 Bc) perfumery near the village of pyrgos , near this perfumery , on olive press a winery and copper smelting works were also discivered .

Wine containners and even the seeds of grapes were unearthed , the second discovery involved an intriguing sequence of events .Dr Porphyrios Dikaios , a major figure in Cypriot archaeology and once curator of the Cyprus miseum had carried out exavations on the outskirts of Erini village between 1932 and 1935 , furing these exavations several fragments of round flasks were unearthed ( amongst other artefacts ) these pottery fragments ended up in the stores of the Cyprus museum still unwashed in wooden boxes .They were dated to the chalcoltthic period ( between 3500 bc & 3000 bc .in 2005 , well after Dr dikaios death the chemical signatures of 18 of these were examined by a team of Italian archaeologist led by Maria- Rosaria Belgiono .Twelve of these showed traces of thartaric acid ( acomponemet of wine proving that the 5 500 year oldvases were used for wine.

During the ottoman occupation of the island , wine production went into decline . This was attributed to two factor : Islamic tradition and the heavy taxation . Indicative are reports written maintly by French and British travelers of the time ; Cyrus redding writes in 1851 : the wine broxer of Cyprus hides from his neighbour the amount of his vintage , and always buries part of his produce for concealment ; the exactions of the government are so great , that his profit upon what he allows to be seen is too little to remunerate him fof his loss in time and labour . The quality odf the wine produced also lagged behind times with Samuel Baker referring to Cypriot wines in 1879 .It should be understood that no quality of Cyprus wines is suitable to the English palate.

The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard
The Cyprus Vineyard

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Malta Vineyards

Publié le par Philippe Josse

Malta Vineyards

Malta & Wine

like all malta Mediterranean led to the vine Climate: January 9.15° , febuary 9°, March 10° to 16 °, April 12° , May 15° t9 18° , June19° to 27° , Juillet 21° to 30° , August 22° to 27° , September 20° , October 17° to 23 °, November14° , December 11° to 16°

The Archipelago is located on 35.50 ° North and 14.35 East , located at 93 km south og sicily and 290 km of the African Coasts it spans 316 km² the country has a total of 196.8 km more ribs 56 km of Gozo it is composed of three five island are inhabited. Malta altitude 200 - 100m Area 246 km² 27 to 14.5 , Gozo 67 km² 15.5 to 7.2 Comino 3.7 km² .

Varieties in Malta are: ghirgentina white, Gellewza mammolo, have nothing of quality but have beenintroduced to their Yields Quality , Maltesse wines are now elaborated with Chardonnay , Merlot , Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Syrah, and Petit Verdot.The sole is made of limestone, coveredwith a layer of clay and sand.

There is no moutain on malta or river or forest , The landscape is characterized by hills rather dry an terraced fields , a legacy of the Arab period , the highest point is the set of Ta Zuta 253 m , the average altitude is 120 m however the Côtesoffers diverse views Whatever there are sandy beaches , natural harbors the most famous are the major port and Marsaxmett , and Valletta, Bays coves cliffs , coves and caves rocky beaches with large flat stones are alsonice , stairs are sometimes built into the rock.

Viticulture Malta has origins as old as prestigious .Introduced by the Phoenicians developed by the Greeks and Romans , sleep during the Muslin occupation, she regained its luster with the arrival of knights of St John of Jerusalem .But the British did pull the vine substitute for cotton and the phylloxera epidemic began to hurt the quality of the wines of Malta.

Historians believe that the vine and the wine were introduced in Malta by the Phoenicians around 800 BC , Greeks settled on the site of the present Medina in the eight century BCE and the islands peacefully shared with the phonecians .Malta then became a colony of Carthage - 480 ,.In favor of the Punic wars , it passed under the control of the Romans in 218 BC to the collapse of the Roman empire in 395 .To 445 , it undergoes the occupation of the Vandals to 477 and that Ostrogoths .Then Passed under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire , it remained Byzantine until its conquest by the Arabs .Vines declined during the muslim occupation until yhe arrival of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem who brought culture techniques Europe .Olivier de Serres describes a vine growing on by haughty landlessness.

Growing wines on pergola as it was praticed in malta int the seventeenth century , the island of malta has gardens with productive and although there is often topsoil that we will carry on Sicily vessels.vines and orange share these beautiful gardens. Oranges are in Boxes, or better expressed in collections formed by stone slabs, a groove is formed in the thickness of the tiles , for arrosements . All along the aisles , several meters away , stood pillars or columns of stone , slabs that form the collections above are the base .Above the pillars are pieces of wood , which join the aisles .In this framework , we put trellises which extend the vines we planted at the foot of each pillar or column, and provide in sequence a pleasant covered. These queues orange , these pillars clad with verdure ande the long went crowned a useful shade , make these picturesque gardens and produce the effect of

decorations we admire in our theaters.

Malta's entry into the Europen Union has pushed Maltesse producers to plant new vines drip irrigated to produce wine only from grapes Malta .Importing wine grapes and wine of Italy to be vinified in Malta lasted until the 1980 .In the mid 2000 , 630 hectoliters of wine were vinified .The vignard cover 490 hectares ,600 hectarees of the 31 pf the islands , but about 70% of production is still provided by grapes Girgentina ,Gellewza

Malta Vineyards
Malta Vineyards
Malta Vineyards
Malta Vineyards

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