Viticulture in Ukraine
Ukraine is the country most of Eastern Europe, excluding Russia ,the vignard is located in the south , nordering the Black Sea.
Is heir a long tradition , Vines introduced by the Greek s flourished with the support of Christianity . The Russian Empire and Soviet have a production oriented luxury that went with the seaside towns of Crimea . It has for it a favorable climate.
In the 2000 s the wine industry is essentially a closed market , but its future is probably facing internationalization as the opening of an exbition in Odessa suggests , However spoofing recognized PDO could eventually interfere with a number of European operators and a problem in its external development.
The implementation of vines in Ukraine was probably made by the Greeks in the Crimea and the south coast .remains of amphorae and wine presses can be concluded that wine productionwas alredy.
fourth century Bc , the Scythians , the current inhabitants of Ukraine , drank their wine pure , to the chagrin of the Greeks and Romans , who cut their own water , It was not until the elevenh century , the monks cultivated the vine further north , around Kiev for their supply sacramental wine.
In 1818, a colony of Swiss wine markers canton of Vaud , is implanted in Ukraine to produce wine for the Tsar's court , She received a tax exemption from military service and prosperous quickly , The vineyard of 500 hectares they have created , is devided between a collective farm and state farm during the nationalization of land.
Count Vorontsov encouraged the planting of vines in the early nineteenth century , it creates a large estate in Yalta in 1820 and a reschearch center in wine in 1823 .After the Crimean War , Prince Lev Sergeyevich Golitsyn initiates the production of sparkling wine which he called " champagne " in reference to the famous French wine.
the vineyard has been attacked administrative in 1986 , when Gorbachev ordered a massive uprooting of vines in the fight against alcoholism about 2500 km , 800 have disappeared ,.Plamtation have taken significantly since 2000
Ukraine suffers mostly a temperature continental climate , hot and dry in summer , cold and dry winter , wet spring and fall However , the vineyard enjoys south , a trend linked to its Mediterranean southern position an d the moderating effect of the Black Sea.
The vineyard is located in Crimea moutain aree , on the relief of the Crimean Moutains , the last bastion of Western Caucasus . This relief can offer all exposures to the culture of the vine and protect partially possible influences lights.
The vineyard is located south plain , in an area rich in agriculture . Crimea is the most important region on the surface with 63 000 hectares .Soil quality and climate trentd Mediterran,een are its strenghs. Very important maturity allows the development of fortified wine and fortified wines (red wines and sparkling quality are also produced).
Av Massandra , the eponymous domain was created on the orders of Tsar Nicolas II , it its cellarscontaina collection of bottles whose number is estimated at over one million . We can mention Sherry 1775 and numerous vintages of wine field.
In the costal zone of the black Sea , wine production is oriented towards the production of table wine , especially a dry white wine , the pearl of the steppe ( Russian Perlyna Stepu ) or semi dry white wine .The vineyard Odessa , between the city and the Danube , covers 50 000 hectares , the second wine is the Kherson with 20 000 ha to the vineyards of Nikolayev 15 000 ha
Transcarpathian Vineyard Locatyed in the Westof the country , alog the border with Hungary , it gives types of wine near the Hungarian wines .It represents environ 7 000 ha , around Zaporozhye and Dnepropetrovsk , about 2000 ha are cultivated on the banks of the Dnieper.
Grape vine on a hybrid at the time of the phylloxera , the vineyards of Ukraine has ben restored with hybrid grapes . These varities were used to develop poor quality table wine .Since 1991 , significant work has been underkaten replanting 79 native varities are grown , but the vines are old and produce little , they are gradually being replaced by foreign varities mostly French( 76 foreign varieties are listed)
The grapes most commonly used are Aligoté , Muuscat, Isabella, Traminer, Cabernet Sauvignon , Chardonnay, the Feteasca, Pinot Noir , Pinot gris, Rkatsiteli, Merlot, Saperavi Severnyi , Riesling, Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer,Sercialthe bastard Magarach , the Golukbuk, the Pervenets magaratcha, the Fieltovy rummy , the podarok magaratcha,the kamraiut, the Stepniak, the Olimpiiski, the Sorok and Octiabria.
Ruring the Soviet period , yields were very high , up to 200 hectoliters per hectare, since 1991 a qualitative effort was undertaken with the gradual disappearance of hybrid varieties and lower yields.
The emergence of Ukrainian wine in the global wine market is suported by the international exhibition "Wine & Winemaking "' it is annual and takes place in Odessa , the tenth edition was held in February 2010 , Ukraine held the eighteenth rang , world wine production with about 2.5 million hectoliters . However , the fluctuation since the country ' s independence is important ,production of more than 2 million hl in 19992 , fell to 500 000 hl in 1999 . since 2002 , it has remained relatively stable betwwen 1.9 and 2.4 million hectoluiters . Falsification rate reached 75% according to a survey origin , nothing the resemblance of wine with the original model : it is called madeira wines , imitation of Madeira ,Kagor imitation of Cahors , Tokay- Tokay imitation or port 10 Hungarian , Engish name of the port.
Ukraine is a country of big consumption of alcohol , about 20 liters of pure alcohol per person per year , however , the wine occupies a modest place , behind vodka and beer . Trazditionally , it is a drink of women , men drinking stronger drinks , Wine consumption same minority is growing around 14% between 2000 and 2005 and 8.5% between 2005 and 2007 80% of the volume of consumption for national wines . Wine is a product that appeals to young women , Between 20 and 25 years 40% of consumers drink wine , this is the age group most heavily affected .Types of fine wines are red wines but their dominance is crumbling in favor of whites . thes wines , more than half are sweet or fortified wines.