Egypt and wines
The first indisputabe evidence of an organized wine comes from ancient Egypt.
Here are 5 or 6 thousand years, orchards wine, were grown on the banks of the Nile, because it was already cut the branchess, build a press, take advantage of the fermentation .And how to treat the delicate vines.
It is difficult to accurately locate the place and date of birth wine, but archaeologists do go back to the late Stone age, 5000 BC , at a time when man is sédentarisa
The first evidence of the domestication and cultivation of the vine back to the fourth millennium BC in the Caucasus and Mesopotamia. The cultivation of the vine and wine production then develop in Egypt , Greece and the Roman Empire , then in Gaul .
Under the Old Empire , the wine is restricted to Pharaoh and his entourage .It is produced in the Fayoun and the Delta , two regions favorable to the growth of the vine , or imported from foreing countries such as Palestine .Pharaho had his ownvine whose production was used for funeralrites , the wine is an essential componnt of the worship of gods , and a portion being reserved for his table .
In the new Kingdon ( 1567- 1085 BC) , And in particular with Ramses that have greatly developed the culture and commerce of wine , it has spread throughout the country and became a product consumed by all . Egypt became a major producer of wine and traded with other Mediterranean countries . The vineyards belonging to important people were already names . Ramses III ( 1198 - 1166 BC ) , the famous vineyards planted Kan- Komet , as well as new vineyards in the Oasis Djoser's vineyard, for example, was a name of a remarkable lenth : Praise to you Horus who is on the threshold of heaven , Egyptians who tasted this wine just drink called Horus.
Land most suitable for the vine was the Nile Delta , but some big owners are located further south in artificially creating a field in its own culture along the river .In addition to these great vineyards , garden were all with at least some vines.
No weeding without throwing some rubble around the vines to aerate the soil . Tirelessly , we sought snail devouring seedling softened Dew, The winemaker worried foil useless exuded the cluster private sun .And when approching the time of collection , birds were hunted all day in the sling.
Methods of cultivation and selection of varities adapted to the geographical environment, The Delta and the Fayoun are the two regions of Egypt preferred where vineyards can provide a high quality wine . Jars regitered reveal the exitence of raw south from well identified four areas of country .During the Persian occupation and domination in the Greek viticulture extends through yhe oasis irrigation techniques , new varieties are introduced.
During Roman times , the administrati documentation provide information on the main pperations covered viticultural techniques . Some wines are exported to Italy.
The texts of the Copic Christian era emphasize the continuity of the development of viticulture in Egypt.
Reserved for the elite , the wine is associated with the gods , including Osiris , god of resurrection .On the one hand , because it leads to drunkenness , considered a possession, it is seen as a tool for beginners and communication with the gods . On the other hand,, because the color red signifies the blood and the life everlasting.
Osiris , God of the afterlife and guarantor of human resurrection is also the god of the vine , which is par excellence , a symbol of renewal and therefore of life reborn , it is not uncommon to find in the decoration of graves , not onlyas an element of the daily life and work that continues beyond death ,but also the symbol of Osiris, otherwise known as the wine who as is the great witness of the resurrrection.
This is tthe case of the famous Tomb of the vines built on the hill of Sheikh Abd el Qurna , for Sennefer , mayor of Thebes under Amenhotep II , who did not show us the grapes invite us to meditate on the myth of Osiris.
The tomb of Sennefer is judtly famous for its ceiling and the quality of its reliefs and its conservation status .Artisans have exploited the irregularity of it to decorate vineyards hence the name " Tomb with vines of the monumment . A true initiatory journey beyond the Egyptian we returned.
This symbol also persits across civilizations and religions very different. The idea a eternal rebirth is also reflected through Dionysus and Jesus . The origin of the wine is divine in Greece , it is given by Dionysus the king Oeneus in Rome Saturn is Olding this role. The Bible uses many images focusing on the vine and wione . For those who follow moses , the first vision of the Promised Land was a bunch of grapes . jesus chages water into wine at the wedding in Cana . He said I am the true vine , and my father is the gardener . The wine is obviously at the center of the Supper , is identified in the blood of Christ.
The etymology of the word vwine.
It comes from the Sanskrit root Vena meaning love found in vinum in Latin , French wine , Italian vino , wein in Germany an English.
During the New Kingdom, Egypt , although large producer , also important wine Palestine , Syria and Phoenicia . The wine trade was prosperous and many boats ensured its delivery on the Nile Teaches writing and an official from the royal palace provided transport 1500 jars of wine and 50 sealed jars chedeh , a liquor made from honey and wine , three boats , On somes jars , you can read the words " wine of the third or the seventh time " which suggests that the Egyptians resorted to successsive extraction , effective way to preserve the quality of the wine.
The vines were grown in the delta and were especially appreciated by the inhabitants of the northen region . The vines trade was very active on the Nile . Ships could carry up to 2000 jars . Champion of the administration , the Egyptians étiquetaent wine . Seal s and labels drawn in ink on some amphorae
New Empire we have received , mention the name of the owner , chief winemaker of the worlkers and even the soil . The origin of the grapes were even noticed , making the label more specific than that now adorn our bottles . The jars are sealed with mud caps .For storing wine , we frequently drawn off or we cooked.
In the past the dynasties wine should be a lucrative market for the cellars were discovered near the harbor of Aboukir in the Mile Delta .A mortar with traces of wine covered walls .Stone pipes were also founf and it is believed that the wine flowed there to the port where it was loaded on ships pinardiers our ancestors . These remains date from 395 to 30 BC , when Egypt was dominated by the Romans.